Dōjutsu (瞳術, English TV: Visual Jutsu, Literally meaning: Eye Techniques) are ninja abilities that utilise the eyes, a by-product of specific kekkei genkai or kekkei mōra. The word refers to both the eyes themselves, which have a number of passive abilities, and any jutsu dependent on the eyes to be performed; the former requires little to no chakra to be used, while the latter varies depending on the jutsu. Dōjutsu can be transplanted into others, though use of the dōjutsu is typically more limited or taxing for those without a genetic predisposition for it. While the user's eyes can be overused and dōjutsu can be prevented from being accessed for a period of time, it doesn't mean the user will be exhausted and they can still use other techniques.
Main article: ByakuganThe Byakugan (白眼, Literally meaning: White Eye, Meaning (Viz): All Seeing White Eye) is the dōjutsu kekkei genkai of the Hyūga and Ōtsutsuki clans, inherited from Kaguya Ōtsutsuki. It is regarded as one of the Three Great Dōjutsu (三大瞳術, San Daidōjutsu, Literally meaning: Three Great Eye Techniques), the others being the Sharingan and the Rinnegan.
Main article: Mangekyō SharinganA Mangekyō Sharingan is distinguished from a normal Sharingan by its appearance, which changes the form of the tomoe seal. The exact design differs for each user, though all resemble pinwheels. It is initially awakened by the trauma suffered from witnessing the death of someone close to the user. Uchiha have historically misunderstood this criteria as the user needing to be responsible for the person's death, and for that reason they developed the practice of killing their closest friends in order to gain the Mangekyō Sharingan.
Ranmaru's Kekkei Genkai
Main article: Ranmaru's Kekkei GenkaiRanmaru possessed a dōjutsu kekkei genkai which, when activated, causes his eyes to glow red in colour. It grants him abilities such as penetrative vision as well as the ability to hinder other dōjutsu such as the Byakugan which his own dōjutsu has been likened to.
Main article: RinneganThe Rinnegan (輪廻眼, Literally meaning: Saṃsāra Eye) is reputed as the most exalted eyes amongst the Three Great Dōjutsu (三大瞳術, San Daidōjutsu, Literally meaning: Three Great Eye Techniques), the others being the Byakugan and the Sharingan. Rinnegan wielders are said to be sent down from the heavens to become either a "God of Creation" who will calm the world's disorder or a "Destroyer" who will reduce everything to nothingness. Rinnegan are characterised by light purple or red sclerae and irides with a ripple-pattern that spreads over the eyeball and in some cases tomoe.
Main article: SharinganThe Sharingan (写輪眼, Literally meaning: Copy Wheel Eye, Meaning (Viz): Mirror Wheel Eye) is the dōjutsu kekkei genkai of the Uchiha clan that appears selectively among its members. It is regarded as one of the Three Great Dōjutsu (三大瞳術, San Daidōjutsu, Literally meaning: Three Great Eye Techniques), the others being the Byakugan and the Rinnegan.
Main article: TenseiganThe Tenseigan (転生眼, Literally meaning: Reincarnation Eye) is a powerful dōjutsu utilised by the Hamura Ōtsutsuki and his descendants. It is characterised by a blue pupil surrounded by a blue and white flower-like iris.
Main article: Rinne Sharingan The Rinne Sharingan (輪廻写輪眼, Literally meaning: Saṃsāra Copy Wheel Eye) is the progenitor of the Rinnegan and Sharingan. It is characterised by a ripple-like pattern which spreads over the eyeball, with red sclerae and irides, containing a pattern of nine tomoe.
When Kidōmaru enters the second stage of his cursed seal, the eye on his forehead opens up. This eye seemingly grants him greater accuracy in his attacks as well as what appears to be the ability to see chakra.
In Naruto Shippūden the Movie: The Will of Fire, the major antagonist Hiruko uses a technique that controls a person's mind, seemingly through eye contact to create the original connection. However, it is not confirmed that the user's eyes or even eye contact is needed to set this technique, so it is unlikely to be a dōjutsu
The concept of dōjutsu may have been inspired by Futaro Yamada's 1959 novel, The Kōga Ninja Scrolls (甲賀忍法帖, Kōga Ninpōchō), which featured two warring clans of ninja that had developed mutations and abilities through selective breeding, with the young heirs to each clan possessing mysterious dōjutsu.
Another possible inspiration for dōjutsu in the series may also be found in the Journey to the West classic's titular character, the Monkey God-King, Sun Wukong: After having eaten all of the 'peaches of immortality', the 'pills of longevity' and drunk all of the 'wine of immortality', and then was captured after a long rebellion against Heaven, the Monkey God-King, Sun Wukong, was then sealed into Lao Tzu's Eight Trigram furnace to be burned to ash in order for Lao Tzu to reclaim his pills of longevity. But after 49 days, Sun Wukong broke out--stronger than ever--his body having been refined by the flames instead of being reduced to ash. His eyes had also become a fiery red and golden colour, becoming known as his "Fiery-eyes golden-gaze" (火眼金睛, Huǒyǎn-Jīnjīng); an eye condition that allowed Sun Wukong to now see what's really there just by looking and the ability to see and recognise the real form of evil despite whatever form that it took on — but, likewise, it also gave him a weakness to smoke, fogging his vision.
- The Byakugan, Rinnegan, and Sharingan are collectively known as the Three Great Dōjutsu (三大瞳術, San Daidōjutsu, English TV: Three Great Visual Jutsu, Literally meaning: Three Great Eye Techniques).
- According to Masashi Kishimoto, if a Sharingan user and a Byakugan user were to have a child, their offspring would have one Byakugan and one Sharingan.