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{{Infobox/Jutsu
 
{{Infobox/Jutsu
 
|ref=<ref>First Databook, page 181</ref>
 
|ref=<ref>First Databook, page 181</ref>
|image=Akatsuki revived.png
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|image=Hokage reincarnated.png
 
|kanji=口寄せ・穢土転生
 
|kanji=口寄せ・穢土転生
 
|unnamed jutsu=No
 
|unnamed jutsu=No
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|viz manga=Summoning: Worldly Resurrection
 
|viz manga=Summoning: Worldly Resurrection
 
|game names=Forbidden Jutsu: Return from the Dead
 
|game names=Forbidden Jutsu: Return from the Dead
|other names=Summoning: Impure World Resurrection
 
 
|parent jutsu=Summoning Technique
 
|parent jutsu=Summoning Technique
 
|jutsu rank=S
 
|jutsu rank=S
 
|jutsu classification=Ninjutsu, Kinjutsu, Reincarnation Ninjutsu, Space–Time Ninjutsu
 
|jutsu classification=Ninjutsu, Kinjutsu, Reincarnation Ninjutsu, Space–Time Ninjutsu
 
|jutsu class type=Supplementary
 
|jutsu class type=Supplementary
|users=Tobirama Senju, Orochimaru, Kabuto Yakushi
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|users=Kabuto Yakushi, Orochimaru, Tobirama Senju
 
|hand signs=Tiger, Snake, Dog, Dragon, Clap hands
 
|hand signs=Tiger, Snake, Dog, Dragon, Clap hands
 
|debut manga=117
 
|debut manga=117
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|jutsu media=Anime, Manga, Game
 
|jutsu media=Anime, Manga, Game
 
}}
 
}}
The {{translation|'''Summoning: Impure World Reincarnation'''|口寄せ・穢土転生|Kuchiyose: Edo Tensei}} is a [[forbidden technique]] where, using a living person as a vessel, a deceased person's soul can be called back to the world of the living and bound to it. The vessel will then take on the form that person had in life, thereby reincarnating them to do their summoner's bidding.
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The '''Summoning: Impure World Reincarnation''' binds the soul of a deceased person to a living vessel, restoring them as they were when they were alive in order to do their summoner's bidding. It was originally created by [[Tobirama Senju]], after which he declared it a [[kinjutsu]]. [[Orochimaru]] rediscovers the technique decades later, and [[Kabuto Yakushi]] subsequently perfects it.
 
== Background ==
 
It was originally developed by [[Tobirama Senju]]. [[Madara Uchiha]] claimed it to be intended for the dead to be reincarnated into soldiers able to clear a battlefield with devastating and otherwise suicidal attacks.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 561, page 2</ref> The technique was learned by [[Orochimaru]] who modified it for his ends.<ref name="Fivetwenty">''Naruto'' chapter 520</ref> Orochimaru's aide [[Kabuto Yakushi]], claiming that this technique to be the greatest and most powerful technique in the shinobi universe due to it posing no risk at all to the user, mastered it to a greater degree than the previous users.<ref name="Fivetwenty"/><ref>''Naruto'' chapter 521, page 13</ref>
 
   
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== Usage ==
 
[[File:Kabuto Demonstrates Edo Tensei.png|left|thumb|The seal for the ritual.]]
 
[[File:Kabuto Demonstrates Edo Tensei.png|left|thumb|The seal for the ritual.]]
To perform this technique, the user must first acquire some of the [[Wikipedia:DNA|DNA]] of the person they intend to reincarnate. Kabuto remarks that this basically amounts to grave-robbing, although blood stains or organs salvaged after the target's death also work.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 520, page 11-13</ref> The soul of the intended reincarnated must also reside in the {{translation|[[Wikipedia:Pure land|pure world]]|浄土|jōdo}}; those whose soul has been consumed by the [[Dead Demon Consuming Seal|Death God]], for example, cannot be reincarnated.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 520, page 12</ref> However, if it is a case where the souls are freed from inside the Shinigami, then a user of this technique is free to reincarnate them once again.<ref name="chpt618">''Naruto'' chapter 618, pages 13-17</ref>
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Before this technique can be performed, the user must first acquire some of the [[Wikipedia:DNA|DNA]] of the person they intend to reincarnate. Kabuto remarks that this basically amounts to grave-robbing, although blood stains or organs salvaged after the target's death also work.<ref name="Fivetwenty"/> The soul of the intended reincarnated must also reside in the [[Pure Land]]; souls trapped in the stomach of the [[Shinigami]], for example, cannot be reincarnated so long as they reside there.<ref name="chpt618">Chapter 618, pages 13-17</ref> A living sacrifice is also required for the reincarnated soul to use as a vessel.<ref name="Fivetwenty">Chapter 520</ref>
   
[[File:Fu sacrifice.png|thumb|Torune being reincarnated with Fū as the sacrifice.]]
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[[File:Fu sacrifice.png|thumb|Torune being reincarnated with Fū as the sacrifice.]]
Next, a living sacrifice is required for the soul of the reincarnated to use as a vessel.<ref name="Fivetwenty"/> Once all prerequisites for the technique have been met, the acquired DNA of the person is smeared on a special scroll and once the scroll is activated, the remains spread out in the form of a special seal with the living sacrifice in the centre. Then dust and ash encase the sacrifice's body, giving them the same appearance that the reincarnated had at the time of their death. The process is apparently somewhat painful as seen when was used to reincarnate Torune. The person is then reincarnated and the end product is usually stored in a casket until summoned by the user. The user can theoretically reincarnate a limitless number of people in this way, so long as they have enough sacrifices, chakra and DNA to perform the technique.<ref name="Fivetwenty"/>
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To actually perform the Impure World Reincarnation, the DNA of the person to be reincarnated is smeared on a special scroll. Once the scroll is activated, the remains spread out in the form of a special seal with the living sacrifice in the centre. Then dust and ash encase the sacrifice's body, giving them the same appearance that the reincarnated had at the time of their death; the process is apparently painful for the sacrifice.<ref name="Fivetwenty"/> The sacrifice's chakra signature is completely overridden with the chakra of the one being reincarnated. Although the sacrifice is still technically alive so long as the technique is active, their body will never again be theirs and the body will die when the reincarnated soul is released.
   
== Details ==
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Although Tobirama was the technique's creator, his usage had two flaws: the reincarnated souls were not as powerful as they were while alive and he could only control so many at a time.<ref name="chapter 521"/> Orochimaru is stated to have mitigated both flaws somewhat, but it is Kabuto who entirely eliminates them, perfecting the Impure World Reincarnation to such a degree that the reincarnations are practically as they were during life and he can control as many at a time as he wishes to, resources permitting.<ref name="Fivetwenty"/> His improvements, combined with the fact that performing the Impure World Reincarnation requires no chakra from the user, causes Kabuto to declare it the most powerful jutsu in history.<ref name="chapter 521"/>
=== Summoning ===
 
[[File:Edo Tensei 2.png|thumb|left|Deidara being "activated" after being reincarnated.]]
 
When first summoned, the body of the reincarnated is stored in a coffin; their body will appear grey and in a state of minor "decay": marred by cracks and other imperfections, and the individual will also appear to be "disengaged". Upon awakening they retain their personality, memories, and all abilities they had in life, including [[kekkei genkai]], [[kekkei tōta]] and [[Summoning Technique|summoning contracts]]. Although clothing is also retained by the reincarnated shinobi, weaponry on the other hand is not and must be procured by the user when necessary, as seen when two members of the [[Seven Ninja Swordsmen of the Mist]] were unable to retrieve their weapons from a scroll upon reincarnation, as they were currently in the possession of others.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 523, page 6</ref> However, once obtained, shinobi that have stored their weapons in or about their person are still able to re-summon their tools, regardless of the number of times they are stored within their respective coffin.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 527, pages 1-3</ref><ref>''Naruto'' chapter 546, page 3</ref> As a downside, the reincarnated seem to retain any permanent body damage and physical limitations they received during their lifetime. The summoned all have grey sclerae and retain their original eye colours, however, the entire eye is darkened. When Kabuto takes complete control of them however, they gain black sclerae and white irides.<ref name="chapter 521">''Naruto'' chapter 521</ref> The appearance of a reincarnated dōjutsu wielder's eye doesn't change at all. The summoned can be recalled at will by the user, causing an empty coffin to emerge and reclaim the individual, and the summoner can also use reincarnated individuals to remotely summon coffins containing additional reinforcements.<ref name="chapter 522">''Naruto'' chapter 522</ref>
 
   
Along with this, the summoned individual can feel the person's chakra flowing through them.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 530, page 14</ref> Persons with [[sensor]]y ability are also able to go one step further and decipher the actual source of the chakra that is manipulating them, even if the summoner is within the confines of a [[barrier]]. This poses a potential disadvantage to the summoner, as a renegade summon that is no longer under their direct control may be able to locate them.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 577, page 16</ref>
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Reincarnations can be mobilized like standard infantry, where they must travel to their destination. Alternatively, coffins that contain them can be summoned to a location, assuming someone is there to perform the summoning; the anime does not consistently require this.<ref>''Naruto: Shippūden'' episode 318</ref> Reincarnations can be recalled in a similar way, with a coffin emerging around them to take them back.
   
 
=== Control ===
 
=== Control ===
[[File:Edo Tensei Tag.png|thumb|The talisman used to bind the reincarnated.]]
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[[File:Edo Tensei Tag.png|thumb|The talisman used to control the reincarnated.]]
After the individual has been summoned and awakened, the summoner can bind the individual to their will by using a special talisman, which is attached to the end of a kunai and implanted in the brain. Upon implanting the talisman, the reincarnated individual will regenerate further, eliminating any remaining imperfections with the exception of small cracks that may run across the body and restoring colour to their bodies.
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The only discretion a user needs to exercise for the Impure World Reincarnation is how much control to exert over the reincarnated soul. After first performing it the user is only able to restrict their movements. In general, this limited control is not an issue for the summoner, and they will typically "deactivate" the reincarnation, placing them in a coffin for storage and transportation until they're needed. However, when the perfected Impure World Reincarnation is used to revive somebody, there comes a possibility that they will be strong enough to resist this control; Orochimaru notes [[Hashirama Senju]] could break free if he chose to.<ref>Chapter 620, page 11</ref>
   
Different talismans can be used to enact different degrees of control. Orochimaru's talismans completely eliminated the personalities of the summoned, turning them into mindless killing machines under his command. Kabuto prefers to use a weaker binding talisman on certain individuals, allowing them to retain some degree of their own personality. The latter method is useful for psychological warfare,<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 516, page 5</ref> and can also allow the summoned individual to tap into their own emotions, memories, or creativity to enhance their effectiveness in combat,<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 513, pages 2 and 17</ref> but also carries a host of drawbacks; it takes more effort to retain control with the weaker binding which can make it possible for the hearts of the summoned to be swayed by strong emotions, which can result in the soul breaking free and returning to the Pure World,<ref name="chapter 522"/> or the reincarnated contradicting orders that they are given.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 532, pages 10-11</ref> Reincarnated shinobi with their personalities still intact have their movements limited to certain actions, and are basically on "auto-pilot" to react to enemy techniques.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 547, page 10</ref> Once they recognise an enemy technique their bodies are programmed to counter it with an appropriate method.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 548, page 14</ref>
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In order to actually be able to control their actions, the user must implant a special talisman - generally attached to the end of a kunai - within the reincarnation's brain. The talisman's design determines how strong the control is:
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*At its most basic, the reincarnated soul retains their personality, giving them the freedom to approach a given task however they like so long as it broadly carries out the summoner's bidding. On the one hand, this makes them more useful in combat because they know how best to use their own abilities<ref>Chapter 513, pages 2 and 17</ref> and, if deployed against somebody they knew when they were alive, there is a possibility for psychological warfare.<ref>Chapter 516, page 5</ref> On the other hand, although they are compelled to do as their summoner wishes and act without reluctance,<ref>Chapter 548, page 14</ref> they can undermine their summoner to a degree, either by making poor decisions that opponents can take advantage of or by giving opponents advice about how to defeat them.<ref>Chapter 557</ref> Despite its risks, Kabuto prefers this level of control.
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*At its strongest level, the reincarnated soul's personality is entirely eliminated. The summoner instead controls all of their actions, even permitting them to speak through the reincarnation<ref>Chapter 560, page 2</ref> or summon other reincarnated souls to their location. Although this guarantees the reincarnated soul will only ever act as desired, they are less resourceful and it requires the summoner's attention for every action that must be taken, making it difficult for them to multi-task depending on the circumstances. Orochimaru prefers this level of control. Kabuto has at times rewritten talismans remotely in order switch to this level of control when the situation calls for it.<ref name="chapter 522">Chapter 522</ref>
   
[[File:Kabuto controlling the revived.png|thumb|left|The pebbles and grid Kabuto uses to monitor the reincarnated shinobi.]]
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Kabuto and Orochimaru are able to strengthen the bindings they use through external means: Kabuto siphons chakra from the [[Orochimaru's Juinjutsu|cursed seal]] [[Anko Mitarashi]] is branded with;<ref name="chapter 522"/> Orochimaru uses [[Senju]] [[White Zetsu Army|cells]].<ref>Chapter 620, pages 9-11</ref> Relatedly, any level of control creates a traceable chakra signature between the reincarnated soul and their summoner, allowing reincarnated [[sensor]]s to trace the summoner's location.<ref>Chapter 577, page 16</ref>
Even so, Kabuto can completely remove their personalities if he needed, and may elect to if they resist his command too strongly. After gaining more experience with the technique, and absorbing Orochimaru's chakra from [[Anko Mitarashi]], Kabuto exerts greater control over the summoned and can even overwrite his own talismans remotely, greatly increasing the power of the binding.<ref name="chapter 522"/> Once deployed, he can either remotely control or track the summoned individuals using pebbles he manipulates on a simple grid, which acts as a map of sorts.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 521, page 17</ref> When a reincarnated person is sealed, the pebble cracks and disappears, and the reincarnated shinobi can no longer be used to summon others. This was seen when Haku and Zabuza were immobilised by Kakashi, Maki, and the rest of their division. The pebble for his [[Madara Uchiha|trump card]] was black in colour while the others are light-coloured.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 575, page 14</ref> The summoner can also directly talk through the summoned individual.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 560, page 2</ref>
 
   
Provided the summoner has not eliminated the reincarnated person's personality, they can break the link binding him or her to the summoner. In doing so, they take full control of their being and if the technique is cancelled, they will remain under their own power, with the immortal body and chakra the technique provides.<ref name="chpt591">''Naruto'' chapter 591, pages 16-17</ref>
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== Attributes ==
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[[File:Edo Tensei 2.png|thumb|left|Deidara being rejuvenated.]]
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When first summoned, the body will appear grey and in a state of minor decay: marred by cracks and other imperfections. If the summoner chooses to, they can rejuvenate the reincarnation while planting their control talisman, restoring their complexion and reducing some of the imperfections; this is merely aesthetic and the signs of decay do not inhibit their abilities. An unavoidable characteristic of a reincarnated body is the darkened sclerae, with a soul that retains its personality having gray sclerae and a soul with a suppressed personality having black sclerae.<ref name="chapter 521">Chapter 521</ref>
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A reincarnated individual will have all the abilities they had during their life, including [[kekkei genkai]] and [[kekkei tōta]]. They are psychically restored as they were at the time of their death, including any physical handicaps they may have possessed, such as [[Nagato]]'s damaged legs. Exceptions exist: illnesses they had will not be preserved, nor will any physical damage that contributed to their death. There is some inconsistency of whether or not foreign body matter will be restored as well: [[Hanzō]] retains the poison gland of the [[black salamander]], but [[Madara Uchiha]] does not have access to [[Hashirama Senju]]'s genetic material and thus Kabuto must artificially reproduce it for him.
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Clothing is reproduced according to what they wore when they died, although it is merely a superficial aspect of their reincarnated body; armor offers no actual protection, being of the same ashen material as the rest of their body. Reincarnated members of [[Akatsuki]] are, however, outfitted with different cloaks than they used to wear. Weaponry is usually not retained and must instead be gathered by the summoner; the reincarnated [[Seven Ninja Swordsmen of the Mist]] only have access to those swords Kabuto is able to acquire.<ref>Chapter 523, page 6</ref> One exception seems to be the [[Gold and Silver Brothers]]' [[Treasured Tools of the Sage of the Six Paths]], which are still seemingly stored within the brothers' bodies.<ref>Chapter 527, pages 1-3</ref>
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Despite being largely the same as they were while alive, the reincarnated can never be as powerful, even with the perfected Impure World Reincarnation; Madara's reincarnated body is successfully bound by the [[Sage Art: Gate of the Great God]], which he easily breaks free of as soon as he is [[Outer Path: Samsara of Heavenly Life Technique|restored to life]].<ref>Chapter 656, page 17</ref> Likewise, there are some things a reincarnated body simply cannot do, such as access all the abilities of the [[Rinnegan]] or become the [[jinchūriki]] of the [[Ten-Tails]].<ref>Chapter 614, page 5</ref>
   
 
=== Enhancements ===
 
=== Enhancements ===
Unlike while they were still alive, the reincarnated have unlimited chakra,<ref name="chpt591"/> as well as seemingly near-unlimited stamina and can fight continuously, as neither [[Kimimaro]] nor [[Itachi]] showed any fatigue from their illnesses as they did in life, and Itachi was even able to use multiple [[Mangekyō Sharingan]] techniques without showing exhaustion, while minor uses caused fatigue in life.
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[[File:Gojō Kibaku Fuda 1.png|thumb|Tobirama using the Mutually Multiplying Explosive Tags.]]
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One of the major benefits of the Impure World Reincarnation is that it grants immortal bodies to those who are reincarnated. Any damage they receive will regenerate in time and, assuming the damage is not too debilitating, they can continue attacking even before their body recovers. This was one of the main purposes Tobirama created the technique for, as he would use one or more reincarnated souls to perform a series of [[Wikipedia:Kamizkaze|Kamikaze]]-like attacks until the opposition was wiped out;<ref>Chapter 561, page 2</ref> he created the [[Mutually Multiplying Explosive Tags]] specifically for this purpose. Reincarnated bodies do not bleed, except in those cases where blood is needed to perform the [[Summoning Technique]].<ref>Chapter 548, page 17</ref>
   
The reincarnated are impossible to kill by normal means. Any damage they receive will easily regenerate, be it lost limbs or complete disintegration. Not even killing the summoner will get rid of them.<ref name="chapter521">''Naruto'' chapter 521, page 3</ref> The summoned can make practical use of the this regeneration ability by using [[C0|suicide attacks]] and [[Meteorite Technique|large scale ninjutsu]] to wipe out everything on a battlefield and then simply regenerate.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 518, pages 9, 10, 14</ref><ref>''Naruto'' chapter 561, pages 1-2</ref>
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A second benefit is the limitless chakra reserve that the reincarnated individuals have access to; they can fight eternally and perform ordinarily physically demanding or chakra-intensive jutsu without issue.<ref name="chpt591"/> (However, the [[Hokage]] reincarnated by Orochimaru report at different times that they have run out of chakra.)<ref>Chapter 646, page 13</ref><ref>Chapter 661, page 11</ref> They are still subject to certain inherent demands of the jutsu itself, such as the [[Second Tsuchikage]]'s chakra supply being cut in half after using the [[Fission Technique]]<ref>Chapter 553, pages 4-5</ref> or only being able to create a certain number of [[clone]]s.<ref>Chapter 637, pages 4-5</ref> Other side-effects may still manifest, as when [[Itachi Uchiha]]'s eyes bleed from using his [[Mangekyō Sharingan]], but he is not inhibited by it.
   
Kabuto can also modify his summoned fighters, as he did with [[Madara Uchiha]]. While the technique usually reincarnates the deceased at the exact state they were in at the time of their deaths, Kabuto noted that he brought Madara back in a state that was "''beyond his prime''" and was reincarnated much younger than when he died an old man as well as instilling him with abilities he had acquired in his old age.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 560, page 3</ref><ref>''Naruto'' chapter 602</ref><ref>''Naruto'' chapter 606, page 12</ref>
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The reincarnated body can be further enhanced. Madara Uchiha's body is restored to its physical prime rather than the withered state it had when he died, he receives a graft of Hashirama Senju's so he can use [[Wood Release]], and he has access to [[dōjutsu]] he gave up during his life.<ref>Chapter 560, page 3</ref> The reincarnated jinchūriki similarly have their respective [[tailed beasts]] sealed back into them.<ref>Chapter 565, page 1</ref>
   
Tobi also modified the eyes of the reincarnated [[jinchūriki]] to match his own,<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 544, pages 14-15</ref> as well as resealing the [[tailed beasts]] back into their respective hosts.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 565, page 1</ref>
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Reincarnated individuals are immune to the [[Infinite Tsukuyomi]].<ref>Chapter 677</ref>
   
 
== Countering ==
 
== Countering ==
While the reincarnated are immune to traditional attacks such as weapon-based attacks and even the death of the summoner being ineffective,<ref name="chapter521"/> there are three discovered methods to end the technique:
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[[File:Itachi's soul.png|thumb|Itachi Uchiha's soul ascending.]]
# Seal away the soul of the reincarnated individual.
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Killing the summoner does not release the Impure World Reincarnation, and in fact that can be considered inadvisable.<ref>Chapter 577, page 17</ref> There are only three guaranteed ways to end the technique:<ref name="chapter 521"/>
# Have the summoner end the technique. As they are unlikely to do this voluntarily, using a [[genjutsu]] to trick them into cancelling the technique is ideal. The sequence of hand seals for cancelling the technique is ''Rat → Ox → Monkey → Tiger → Dragon → Boar'' and saying {{translation|"release"|解|kai}} (when demonstrating the technique to Tobi, Kabuto lied that the seals to release it are ''Dog → Horse → Tiger'').<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 589, pages 8-12</ref><ref>''Naruto'' chapter 521, page 3</ref> If the summoner dies before the technique is deactivated, then this method is impossible.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 577, page 17</ref>
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# Remove the soul from the reincarnated body, such as with the [[Dead Demon Consuming Seal]].
# The reincarnated individual is affected in some emotional way that gives them closure;<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 518, page 17</ref> [[Kankurō]] notes that human emotions are not so easily restrained.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 519, page 4</ref> However, this method cannot work if the summoner eradicates the personality of the reincarnated individual before their soul is freed of its bonds.<ref name="chapter 522"/>
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# Have the summoner end the technique. As they are unlikely to do this voluntarily, using a [[genjutsu]] to trick them into cancelling the technique is ideal. The sequence of [[hand seals]] for cancelling the technique is ''Rat → Ox → Monkey → Tiger → Dragon → Boar'' and saying {{translation|"release"|解|kai}}.<ref>Chapter 589, pages 8-12</ref> (When demonstrating the technique to [[Tobi]], Kabuto lied that the seals to release it are ''Dog Horse Tiger''.)<ref name="chapter 521"/> The [[Sage of the Six Paths]] has demonstrated the ability to release the Impure World Reincarnation despite not being the summoner.<ref>Chapter 691, page 13</ref>
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# A less reliable, though equally effective method is to have the reincarnated soul be affected in some emotional way that gives them closure, allowing their soul to break free of the Impure World Reincarnation's influence.<ref>Chapter 518, page 17</ref>
   
[[File:Itachi's ascending soul.png|thumb|Itachi Uchiha's soul ascending.]]
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When a soul is released from the Impure World Reincarnation, their body disintegrates back into dust and the sacrifice's corpse will be left lying in the debris. The soul may linger briefly - with their personality restored if it was being suppressed - to leave parting words or take final actions. Souls released by their summoner will be enveloped in light throughout the process.<ref>Chapter 589, pages 12-17</ref>
Once any of the first three methods are accomplished, the reincarnated individual will briefly regain their personalities before crumbling back into dust, leaving the bodies of the sacrificed individuals lying among the ashes. If the technique is cancelled by the user, the reincarnated's bodies are surrounded by a light before beginning to deconstruct.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 589, pages 12-17</ref> After this, the reincarnated individual's soul will begin to ascend, leaving behind the corpse of their vessel.
 
   
Aside from the three methods of actually defeating the technique outright, there are four discovered methods of countering the effectiveness of this technique:
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Even if the Impure World Reincarnation cannot be broken conventionally, reincarnated bodies can still be neutralized. During the [[Fourth Shinobi World War]], the [[Allied Shinobi Forces]] develop the method of binding the reincarnations' bodies so that they can't move and then placing a [[seal]] on the bindings so that they no longer pose a threat. [[Yin–Yang Release]], as manifested in [[Truth-Seeking Ball]]s, can negate the regenerative properties of reincarnated bodies, reducing their effectiveness and, if used to strike a vital spot, kill them for all intents and purposes.<ref name="c642">Chapter 642, pages 4-5</ref>
# The technique can be partially combated by immobilising the bodies in a way that it cannot move, act, or be recalled by the summoner. Although this does not truly defeat the summoning, it is effective at neutralising the immediate threat the reincarnated pose in battle.
 
# If the reincarnated still retain their personalities, they can speak against the user or themselves by providing hints and advice to the opponents, even in the midst of involuntarily fighting them.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 532, page 15</ref><ref>''Naruto'' chapter 548, pages 16-18</ref> With considerable strength of will, the summoner's authority can even be completely overridden, albeit briefly.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 532, pages 10-11</ref>
 
# A [[Kotoamatsukami|powerful genjutsu]] can free the reincarnated person from the technique's control by giving them an order which overrides the summoner's control.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 550, page 8</ref> This can be remedied if the user can place a new talisman into the said reincarnated person, thus re-establishing control.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 582, page 3</ref>
 
# What Madara describes as "the one risk of the technique", if the reincarnated knows the specific seal, one can release the Impure World Reincarnation's summoning contract, severing the bond between themselves and the summoner. This leaves the individual effectively immortal with an unlimited amount of chakra, and the summoner has no control over the individual's mind and movements any longer, nor can the technique be deactivated on the said individual.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 591, page 17</ref>
 
   
It should be noted that the reincarnated are still vulnerable to any technique that could affect them while they were alive, but they are able to reform as soon as they receive any damage. Furthermore, while the reincarnated can't be destroyed and feel no pain which originates from bodily harm or mutilation,<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 527, page 14</ref><ref>''Naruto'' chapter 532, pages 10-11</ref><ref>''Naruto'' chapter 552, page 16</ref><ref>''Naruto'' chapter 553, pages 4-5</ref><ref>''Naruto'' chapter 561, pages 2, 7</ref> they are still vulnerable to the drawbacks from their own techniques or weaknesses. Such examples include [[Hanzō]]'s [[poison]] acting as a paralysis agent, [[Mū]] along with the [[Second Mizukage]] being left weakened after using [[Splitting Technique|certain]] [[Steaming Danger Tyranny|techniques]], and [[Itachi]]'s eye bleeding on the activation of his [[Mangekyō Sharingan]].
+
There are also ways for a reincarnated body to escape their summoner's influence. [[Itachi Uchiha]] is targeted with [[Kotoamatsukami]], displacing Kabuto's commands with different orders.<ref>Chapter 550, page 8</ref> Kabuto can regain control of Itachi by gaining access to the control talisman,<ref>Chapter 582, page 3</ref> and in fact is still able to release him from the Impure World Reincarnation. Conversely, if the reincarnated soul knows the hand seals, they can sever the summoner's contract with them; in the anime, the seals are ''Snake → Ram → Boar → Dog Tiger''.<ref>''Naruto: Shippūden'' episode 340</ref> This grants them full control of their own actions, all the benefits of an immortal body, and prevents the summoner from releasing them from the Impure World Reincarnation. [[Madara Uchiha]] describes this as "the one risk of the technique".<ref name="chpt591">Chapter 591, page 17</ref>
   
 
== Known Reincarnated ==
 
== Known Reincarnated ==
{| class="wikitable sortable" border="1"
+
=== Orochimaru ===
|+ '''Reincarnated by Orochimaru'''
+
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|-
 
|-
! scope="col" | Name
+
! Name
! scope="col" | Village of origin
+
! Village of origin
! scope="col" | Reason for reincarnation
 
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Hashirama Senju]] || [[Konohagakure]] || [[Hokage]]
+
| [[Hashirama Senju]] || [[Konohagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Tobirama Senju]] || [[Konohagakure]] || [[Hokage]]
+
| [[Hiruzen Sarutobi]] || [[Konohagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Hiruzen Sarutobi]]<ref name="chpt618"/> || [[Konohagakure]] || [[Hokage]]
+
| [[Minato Namikaze]] || [[Konohagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Minato Namikaze]]<ref name="chpt618"/> || [[Konohagakure]] || [[Hokage]]
+
| [[Osoi]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Kumogakure]]
  +
|-
  +
| [[Tobirama Senju]] || [[Konohagakure]]
  +
|-
  +
| [[Yota]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || Unknown
 
|}
 
|}
   
<!-- Do NOT change the reason for reincarnation or add a status column -->
+
;Notes
{| class="wikitable sortable" border="1"
+
*During the [[Konoha Crush]], Orochimaru attempted to reincarnate Minato Namikaze, unaware that his soul did not reside in the [[Pure Land]]. For that reason the summon failed.<ref name="Fivetwenty"/> The failed coffin is not seen in the manga, but in the anime it briefly appears with {{translation|"four"|四|Yon}} written on it.<ref name="e69"/> However, because of the mechanics of this technique, it's illogical that Orochimaru tried to summon the Fourth. He should've noticed that that's impossible when he had to do the first summoning (the one with the ritual).
|+ '''Reincarnated by Kabuto'''
+
*In the anime, Orochimaru's reincarnation of Osoi was an accident, as he intended to reincarnate [[Toroi]].
  +
  +
===Kabuto Yakushi===
  +
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|-
 
|-
! scope="col" | Name
+
! Name
! scope="col" | Village of origin
+
! Village of origin
! scope="col" | Reason for reincarnation
 
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Ameyuri Ringo]] || [[Kirigakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[A (Third Raikage)|A]] || [[Kumogakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Asuma Sarutobi]] || [[Konohagakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Ameyuri Ringo]] || [[Kirigakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Chiyo]] || [[Sunagakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Asuma Sarutobi]] || [[Konohagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Chūkichi]] || [[Kirigakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Blue B]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Kumogakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Dan Katō]] || [[Konohagakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Chen]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Konohagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Deidara]] || [[Iwagakure]] || [[Akatsuki]]
+
| [[Chiyo]] || [[Sunagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Fourth Kazekage]] || [[Sunagakure]] || [[Kage]]
+
| [[Chūkaku]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Fire Temple]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[]] || [[Takigakure]] || [[Jinchūriki]]
+
| [[Chūkichi]] || [[Kirigakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Fuguki Suikazan]] || [[Kirigakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Dan Katō]] || [[Konohagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Gari]] || [[Iwagakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Daimaru]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Sunagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Ginkaku]] || [[Kumogakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Deidara]] || [[Iwagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Haku]] || [[Kirigakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[]] || [[Takigakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Han]] || [[Iwagakure]] || [[Jinchūriki]]
+
| [[Fuguki Suikazan]] || [[Kirigakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Hanzō]] || [[Amegakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Gari]] || [[Iwagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Hayate Gekkō]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Konohagakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Gengetsu Hōzuki]] || [[Kirigakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Hizashi Hyūga]] || [[Konohagakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Ginkaku]] || [[Kumogakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Inabi Uchiha]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Konohagakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Haku]] || [[Kirigakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Itachi Uchiha]] || [[Konohagakure]] || [[Akatsuki]]
+
| [[Han]] || [[Iwagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Jinin Akebino]] || [[Kirigakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Hanzō]] || [[Amegakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Jinpachi Munashi]] || [[Kirigakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Hayate Gekkō]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Konohagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Kakuzu]] || [[Takigakure]] || [[Akatsuki]]
+
| [[Heiji]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Amegakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Kimimaro]] || [[Otogakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Hizashi Hyūga]] || [[Konohagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Kinkaku]] || [[Kumogakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Inabi Uchiha]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Konohagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Kushimaru Kuriarare]] || [[Kirigakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Itachi Uchiha]] || [[Konohagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Madara Uchiha]] || [[Konohagakure]] || Blackmailing [[Tobi]]/"Famous"
+
| [[Jinin Akebino]] || [[Kirigakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Mangetsu Hōzuki]] || [[Kirigakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Jinpachi Munashi]] || [[Kirigakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[]] || [[Iwagakure]] || [[Kage]]
+
| [[Jirōbō]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Otogakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Nagato]] || [[Amegakure]] || [[Akatsuki]]
+
| [[Kakuzu]] || [[Takigakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Pakura]] || [[Sunagakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Kidōmaru]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Otogakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Rōshi]] || [[Iwagakure]] || [[Jinchūriki]]
+
| [[Kimimaro]] || [[Otogakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Sasori]] || [[Sunagakure]] || [[Akatsuki]]
+
| [[Kinkaku]] || [[Kumogakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Second Mizukage]] || [[Kirigakure]] || [[Kage]]
+
| [[Kushimaru Kuriarare]] || [[Kirigakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Shin]] || [[Konohagakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Madara Uchiha]] || [[Konohagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Third Raikage]] || [[Kumogakure]] || [[Kage]]
+
| [[Mangetsu Hōzuki]] || [[Kirigakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Tonika Village Head]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Tonika Village]] || Deceiving enemies/"Famous"
+
| [[]] || [[Iwagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Toroi]] || [[Kumogakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Nagato]] || [[Amegakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Torune]] || [[Konohagakure]] || Demonstration for [[Tobi]]
+
| [[Osoi]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Kumogakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Utakata]] || [[Kirigakure]] || [[Jinchūriki]]
+
| [[Pakura]] || [[Sunagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Yagura]] || [[Kirigakure]] || [[Jinchūriki]]/[[Kage]]
+
| [[Rasa]] || [[Sunagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Yugito Nii]] || [[Kumogakure]] || [[Jinchūriki]]
+
| [[Rōshi]] || [[Iwagakure]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Zabuza Momochi]] || [[Kirigakure]] || "Famous"
+
| [[Sakon and Ukon]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Otogakure]]
  +
|-
  +
| [[Sasori]] || [[Sunagakure]]
  +
|-
  +
| [[Shin]] || [[Konohagakure]]
  +
|-
  +
| [[Tatewaki]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Land of Iron]]
  +
|-
  +
| [[Tayuya]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Otogakure]]
  +
|-
  +
| [[Tonika Village Head]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || [[Tonika Village]]
  +
|-
  +
| [[Toroi]] || [[Kumogakure]]
  +
|-
  +
| [[Torune Aburame]] || [[Konohagakure]]
  +
|-
  +
| [[Utakata]] || [[Kirigakure]]
  +
|-
  +
| [[Yagura]] || [[Kirigakure]]
  +
|-
  +
| [[Yota]] <noinclude><sup>(Anime only)</sup></noinclude> || Unknown
  +
|-
  +
| [[Yugito Nii]] || [[Kumogakure]]
  +
|-
  +
| [[Zabuza Momochi]] || [[Kirigakure]]
 
|}
 
|}
+
;Notes
== Other Known Reincarnated Shinobi ==
+
* Kabuto mentions his desire to reincarnate certain shinobi:<ref name="Fivetwenty"/>
In the anime, it was shown that Kabuto has reincarnated a great deal more shinobi than shown in the manga. While most of these have yet to be seen on the battlefield, the ones that have been used are as follow:
+
** [[Jiraiya]], though his body lies at the bottom of the ocean where the water pressure is too great to reach. However, he claimed that the bloodstains on the [[Six Paths of Pain]]'s [[Chakra Disruption Blades|weapons]] may provide enough DNA. [[Tobi]] denies him this request on the basis that doing so would be "pushing [his] luck".
* In the [[Chikara Arc]], during the invasion of the [[Tonika Village]] and the subsequent skirmish with officers from the [[Hachō Village]] and [[Team Kakashi]], Kabuto summoned several shinobi:
+
** [[Shisui Uchiha]], but Kabuto could not find his body. He suggested that one of Shisui's eyes that was crushed by [[Danzō Shimura]], whose corpse was in Tobi's possession, would be sufficient. As with Jiraiya's case, Tobi threatened him not to push his luck.
** A burly Kumogakure shinobi wielding a [[]].
+
*In the anime, Kabuto's reincarnation of Chūkaku and Heiji are accidents, as he intended to reincarnate [[Chiriku]] and Hanzō, respectively.
** A Sunagakure shinobi wielding a pair of [[Wikipedia:Chakram|chakram]].
+
**Kabuto deploys these and other mistaken reincarnations to try and release more important reincarnations from their bindings. As most are no stronger than [[genin]], they all fail.<ref name="ship316">''Naruto: Shippūden'' episode 316</ref>
** An Iwagakure shinobi wearing a flame-thrower device.
 
** A Kirigakure shinobi wielding a [[sword]].
 
** A Takigakure shinobi with an eye-patch covering his left eye.
 
   
 
== Trivia ==
 
== Trivia ==
  +
[[File:Kabuto controlling the revived.png|thumb|The pebbles and grid Kabuto uses.]]
  +
*Kabuto is seen using a grid to keep track of all the reincarnated individuals he controls, with a pebble representing each shinobi.<ref name="chapter 521"/> It is not clear if there is some actual connection between the grid and those he reincarnates or if it's a mere convenience for him. In the anime, the pebbles crumble when the reincarnation is sealed. All of the pebbles are light-colored except for [[Madara Uchiha]]'s, whose is black.<ref>Chapter 575, page 14</ref> In the anime, the failed reincarnations are represented by piles of sand.<ref name="ship316"/>
 
* {{translation|"Edo"|穢土|lit meaning=Dirty Soil}} is what Japanese Buddhists call the normal world, unenlightened people live in. The current, living world. The world of the people who have not yet have escaped the polluting thoughts (greed, hatred, delusion, etc.) that result in suffering.
 
* {{translation|"Edo"|穢土|lit meaning=Dirty Soil}} is what Japanese Buddhists call the normal world, unenlightened people live in. The current, living world. The world of the people who have not yet have escaped the polluting thoughts (greed, hatred, delusion, etc.) that result in suffering.
 
* A possible translation of ''Tensei'' is "Resurrection". In terms of this technique, both "Reincarnation" and "Resurrection" can be found; the sacrificed body is ''reincarnated'' into the body of the summoned shinobi, while the reincarnated shinobi is ''resurrected'' from the dead.
 
* A possible translation of ''Tensei'' is "Resurrection". In terms of this technique, both "Reincarnation" and "Resurrection" can be found; the sacrificed body is ''reincarnated'' into the body of the summoned shinobi, while the reincarnated shinobi is ''resurrected'' from the dead.
* In [[The Mission Given…!!|chapter 117]] of the manga, when Orochimaru first performs the technique, he tries to summon a third coffin. When the coffin is not summoned, he comments on its failure. Years later, in [[The Secret of the Impure World Reincarnation|chapter 520]], Kabuto explains that Orochimaru's attempt to summon the [[Fourth Hokage]] had failed due to his soul not residing in the "Pure World", which Orochimaru was not aware of. In [[Village in Distress: A New A-Ranked Mission!|episode 69]] of the anime, when Orochimaru used this technique, the coffin briefly appears, with {{translation|"four"|四|Yon}} written on it; though the summoning of the Fourth Hokage still fails. Based on Kabuto's demonstration, it would seem the actual failure would have occurred when Orochimaru performed the original preparatory ritual.
+
* In ''[[Naruto: Ultimate Ninja 2]]'', Orochimaru reincarnates the [[Third Hokage]] despite his soul not being in the [[Pure Land]].
* The video game, ''Naruto: Ultimate Ninja 2'', the (non-canon) storyline contradicts the idea the soul of the reincarnated must reside in the Pure World, as Orochimaru reincarnates the Third Hokage no differently than anyone else he summons in the game.
+
** Orochimaru also reincarnates [[Zabuza]] and [[Haku]] to aid him in a second [[Konoha Crush]].
* Kabuto also mentions his desire to reincarnate certain shinobi, including:
+
* During the original ''Naruto'' anime, a reincarnated target's eyes appear normal, albeit glazed over.<ref name="e69">''Naruto'' episode 69</ref> In ''Naruto: Shippūden'', the eyes are corrected to match the manga.
** [[Jiraiya]], though his body lies at the bottom of the ocean where the water pressure is too great to reach. However, he claimed that the bloodstains on the [[Six Paths of Pain]]'s [[Chakra Disruption Blades|weapons]] may provide enough DNA.<ref name="wish">''Naruto'' chapter 520, page 13</ref>
+
* In ''[[Ultimate Ninja Storm Generations]]'', Kabuto Yakushi (Snake Cloak Form) uses the Impure World Reincarnation as his ultimate technique. He summons Kakuzu, Itachi, and Deidara, who attack the opponent using the [[Lightning Release: False Darkness]], [[Fire Release: Great Fireball Technique]], and [[C1]], respectively.
** [[Shisui Uchiha]], but Kabuto could not find his body, though he suggested that Shisui's crushed eye, which is in Tobi's possession, may be sufficient.<ref name="wish" /> Later, after learning that Shisui's other eye was on the battlefield, he seemed excited at the prospect of obtaining it.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 550, page 13</ref> However, Itachi [[Amaterasu|incinerated]] it.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 552, page 11</ref>
+
* In the anime, when eradicating the personality of Hanzō, Kabuto used several hand seals instead of just one.<ref>''Naruto: Shippūden'' episode 272</ref>
* In the manga, when the First and Second Hokage were reincarnated, their eyes appeared blank.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 118, pages 4</ref> In the anime version, their eyes appeared normal.<ref>''Naruto'' episode 69</ref> Later in ''Shippūden'', the sclera of a reincarnated shinobi is changed to dark grey.
 
* In ''[[Naruto Shippūden: Ultimate Ninja Storm Generations]]'', Kabuto Yakushi (Snake Cloak Form) uses this as his ultimate technique. He summons Kakuzu, Itachi and Deidara, who attack the opponent using the [[Lightning Release: False Darkness]], [[Fire Release: Great Fireball Technique]] and [[C1]] techniques respectively.
 
* In the anime, when Kabuto summons the reincarnated shinobi for war, there are several additional ones who do not appear in the manga.<ref>''Naruto: Shippūden'' episode 256</ref> Also when eradicating the personality of Hanzō, he use several hand seals instead of just one.<ref>''Naruto: Shippūden'' episode 272</ref>
 
* It seems that there are two ways for the user to release the technique.<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 591, page 1</ref><ref>''Naruto: Shippūden'' episode 276</ref>
 
* It appears that this technique requires the user's arms to be at full power, as Orochimaru could not perform it when his arms were sealed away by the [[Dead Demon Consuming Seal]].<ref>''Naruto'' chapter 618, page 11</ref>
 
   
 
== See Also ==
 
== See Also ==
 
* ''[[Body Recreation Technique]]''
 
* ''[[Body Recreation Technique]]''
  +
* [[Earth Release Resurrection Technique: Corpse Soil]]
   
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
{{Scroll box
+
<references/>
|content=
 
<references />
 
}}
 
   
  +
[[es:Invocación: Resurrección del Mundo Impuro]]
 
[[ka:ვიძახებ: უწმინდურ მსოფლიო რეინკარნაციას]]
 
[[ka:ვიძახებ: უწმინდურ მსოფლიო რეინკარნაციას]]
 
[[ru:Призыв: Нечистивое Воскрешение]]
 
[[ru:Призыв: Нечистивое Воскрешение]]

Latest revision as of 19:38, June 24, 2015

Summoning: Impure World Reincarnation [1]
Hokage reincarnated
Name
Kanji 口寄せ・穢土転生
Rōmaji Kuchiyose: Edo Tensei
Literal English Summoning: Impure World Reincarnation
Viz manga Summoning: Worldly Resurrection
English TV Summoning Jutsu: Reanimation
Games Forbidden Jutsu: Return from the Dead
Debut
Manga Chapter #117
Anime Naruto Episode #69
Game Naruto: Ultimate Ninja
Appears in Anime, Manga, Game
Data
Classification Ninjutsu, Kinjutsu, Reincarnation Ninjutsu, Space–Time Ninjutsu
Rank S-rank
Class Supplementary
Hand seals Tiger → Snake → Dog → Dragon → Clap hands
Other jutsu
Parent jutsu
Derived jutsu
Users

The Summoning: Impure World Reincarnation binds the soul of a deceased person to a living vessel, restoring them as they were when they were alive in order to do their summoner's bidding. It was originally created by Tobirama Senju, after which he declared it a kinjutsu. Orochimaru rediscovers the technique decades later, and Kabuto Yakushi subsequently perfects it.

Usage Edit

Kabuto Demonstrates Edo Tensei

The seal for the ritual.

Before this technique can be performed, the user must first acquire some of the DNA of the person they intend to reincarnate. Kabuto remarks that this basically amounts to grave-robbing, although blood stains or organs salvaged after the target's death also work.[2] The soul of the intended reincarnated must also reside in the Pure Land; souls trapped in the stomach of the Shinigami, for example, cannot be reincarnated so long as they reside there.[3] A living sacrifice is also required for the reincarnated soul to use as a vessel.[2]

Fu sacrifice

Torune being reincarnated with Fū as the sacrifice.

To actually perform the Impure World Reincarnation, the DNA of the person to be reincarnated is smeared on a special scroll. Once the scroll is activated, the remains spread out in the form of a special seal with the living sacrifice in the centre. Then dust and ash encase the sacrifice's body, giving them the same appearance that the reincarnated had at the time of their death; the process is apparently painful for the sacrifice.[2] The sacrifice's chakra signature is completely overridden with the chakra of the one being reincarnated. Although the sacrifice is still technically alive so long as the technique is active, their body will never again be theirs and the body will die when the reincarnated soul is released.

Although Tobirama was the technique's creator, his usage had two flaws: the reincarnated souls were not as powerful as they were while alive and he could only control so many at a time.[4] Orochimaru is stated to have mitigated both flaws somewhat, but it is Kabuto who entirely eliminates them, perfecting the Impure World Reincarnation to such a degree that the reincarnations are practically as they were during life and he can control as many at a time as he wishes to, resources permitting.[2] His improvements, combined with the fact that performing the Impure World Reincarnation requires no chakra from the user, causes Kabuto to declare it the most powerful jutsu in history.[4]

Reincarnations can be mobilized like standard infantry, where they must travel to their destination. Alternatively, coffins that contain them can be summoned to a location, assuming someone is there to perform the summoning; the anime does not consistently require this.[5] Reincarnations can be recalled in a similar way, with a coffin emerging around them to take them back.

Control Edit

Edo Tensei Tag

The talisman used to control the reincarnated.

The only discretion a user needs to exercise for the Impure World Reincarnation is how much control to exert over the reincarnated soul. After first performing it the user is only able to restrict their movements. In general, this limited control is not an issue for the summoner, and they will typically "deactivate" the reincarnation, placing them in a coffin for storage and transportation until they're needed. However, when the perfected Impure World Reincarnation is used to revive somebody, there comes a possibility that they will be strong enough to resist this control; Orochimaru notes Hashirama Senju could break free if he chose to.[6]

In order to actually be able to control their actions, the user must implant a special talisman - generally attached to the end of a kunai - within the reincarnation's brain. The talisman's design determines how strong the control is:

  • At its most basic, the reincarnated soul retains their personality, giving them the freedom to approach a given task however they like so long as it broadly carries out the summoner's bidding. On the one hand, this makes them more useful in combat because they know how best to use their own abilities[7] and, if deployed against somebody they knew when they were alive, there is a possibility for psychological warfare.[8] On the other hand, although they are compelled to do as their summoner wishes and act without reluctance,[9] they can undermine their summoner to a degree, either by making poor decisions that opponents can take advantage of or by giving opponents advice about how to defeat them.[10] Despite its risks, Kabuto prefers this level of control.
  • At its strongest level, the reincarnated soul's personality is entirely eliminated. The summoner instead controls all of their actions, even permitting them to speak through the reincarnation[11] or summon other reincarnated souls to their location. Although this guarantees the reincarnated soul will only ever act as desired, they are less resourceful and it requires the summoner's attention for every action that must be taken, making it difficult for them to multi-task depending on the circumstances. Orochimaru prefers this level of control. Kabuto has at times rewritten talismans remotely in order switch to this level of control when the situation calls for it.[12]

Kabuto and Orochimaru are able to strengthen the bindings they use through external means: Kabuto siphons chakra from the cursed seal Anko Mitarashi is branded with;[12] Orochimaru uses Senju cells.[13] Relatedly, any level of control creates a traceable chakra signature between the reincarnated soul and their summoner, allowing reincarnated sensors to trace the summoner's location.[14]

Attributes Edit

Edo Tensei 2

Deidara being rejuvenated.

When first summoned, the body will appear grey and in a state of minor decay: marred by cracks and other imperfections. If the summoner chooses to, they can rejuvenate the reincarnation while planting their control talisman, restoring their complexion and reducing some of the imperfections; this is merely aesthetic and the signs of decay do not inhibit their abilities. An unavoidable characteristic of a reincarnated body is the darkened sclerae, with a soul that retains its personality having gray sclerae and a soul with a suppressed personality having black sclerae.[4]

A reincarnated individual will have all the abilities they had during their life, including kekkei genkai and kekkei tōta. They are psychically restored as they were at the time of their death, including any physical handicaps they may have possessed, such as Nagato's damaged legs. Exceptions exist: illnesses they had will not be preserved, nor will any physical damage that contributed to their death. There is some inconsistency of whether or not foreign body matter will be restored as well: Hanzō retains the poison gland of the black salamander, but Madara Uchiha does not have access to Hashirama Senju's genetic material and thus Kabuto must artificially reproduce it for him.

Clothing is reproduced according to what they wore when they died, although it is merely a superficial aspect of their reincarnated body; armor offers no actual protection, being of the same ashen material as the rest of their body. Reincarnated members of Akatsuki are, however, outfitted with different cloaks than they used to wear. Weaponry is usually not retained and must instead be gathered by the summoner; the reincarnated Seven Ninja Swordsmen of the Mist only have access to those swords Kabuto is able to acquire.[15] One exception seems to be the Gold and Silver Brothers' Treasured Tools of the Sage of the Six Paths, which are still seemingly stored within the brothers' bodies.[16]

Despite being largely the same as they were while alive, the reincarnated can never be as powerful, even with the perfected Impure World Reincarnation; Madara's reincarnated body is successfully bound by the Sage Art: Gate of the Great God, which he easily breaks free of as soon as he is restored to life.[17] Likewise, there are some things a reincarnated body simply cannot do, such as access all the abilities of the Rinnegan or become the jinchūriki of the Ten-Tails.[18]

Enhancements Edit

Gojō Kibaku Fuda 1

Tobirama using the Mutually Multiplying Explosive Tags.

One of the major benefits of the Impure World Reincarnation is that it grants immortal bodies to those who are reincarnated. Any damage they receive will regenerate in time and, assuming the damage is not too debilitating, they can continue attacking even before their body recovers. This was one of the main purposes Tobirama created the technique for, as he would use one or more reincarnated souls to perform a series of Kamikaze-like attacks until the opposition was wiped out;[19] he created the Mutually Multiplying Explosive Tags specifically for this purpose. Reincarnated bodies do not bleed, except in those cases where blood is needed to perform the Summoning Technique.[20]

A second benefit is the limitless chakra reserve that the reincarnated individuals have access to; they can fight eternally and perform ordinarily physically demanding or chakra-intensive jutsu without issue.[21] (However, the Hokage reincarnated by Orochimaru report at different times that they have run out of chakra.)[22][23] They are still subject to certain inherent demands of the jutsu itself, such as the Second Tsuchikage's chakra supply being cut in half after using the Fission Technique[24] or only being able to create a certain number of clones.[25] Other side-effects may still manifest, as when Itachi Uchiha's eyes bleed from using his Mangekyō Sharingan, but he is not inhibited by it.

The reincarnated body can be further enhanced. Madara Uchiha's body is restored to its physical prime rather than the withered state it had when he died, he receives a graft of Hashirama Senju's so he can use Wood Release, and he has access to dōjutsu he gave up during his life.[26] The reincarnated jinchūriki similarly have their respective tailed beasts sealed back into them.[27]

Reincarnated individuals are immune to the Infinite Tsukuyomi.[28]

Countering Edit

Itachi&#039;s soul

Itachi Uchiha's soul ascending.

Killing the summoner does not release the Impure World Reincarnation, and in fact that can be considered inadvisable.[29] There are only three guaranteed ways to end the technique:[4]

  1. Remove the soul from the reincarnated body, such as with the Dead Demon Consuming Seal.
  2. Have the summoner end the technique. As they are unlikely to do this voluntarily, using a genjutsu to trick them into cancelling the technique is ideal. The sequence of hand seals for cancelling the technique is Rat → Ox → Monkey → Tiger → Dragon → Boar and saying "release" (, kai).[30] (When demonstrating the technique to Tobi, Kabuto lied that the seals to release it are Dog → Horse → Tiger.)[4] The Sage of the Six Paths has demonstrated the ability to release the Impure World Reincarnation despite not being the summoner.[31]
  3. A less reliable, though equally effective method is to have the reincarnated soul be affected in some emotional way that gives them closure, allowing their soul to break free of the Impure World Reincarnation's influence.[32]

When a soul is released from the Impure World Reincarnation, their body disintegrates back into dust and the sacrifice's corpse will be left lying in the debris. The soul may linger briefly - with their personality restored if it was being suppressed - to leave parting words or take final actions. Souls released by their summoner will be enveloped in light throughout the process.[33]

Even if the Impure World Reincarnation cannot be broken conventionally, reincarnated bodies can still be neutralized. During the Fourth Shinobi World War, the Allied Shinobi Forces develop the method of binding the reincarnations' bodies so that they can't move and then placing a seal on the bindings so that they no longer pose a threat. Yin–Yang Release, as manifested in Truth-Seeking Balls, can negate the regenerative properties of reincarnated bodies, reducing their effectiveness and, if used to strike a vital spot, kill them for all intents and purposes.[34]

There are also ways for a reincarnated body to escape their summoner's influence. Itachi Uchiha is targeted with Kotoamatsukami, displacing Kabuto's commands with different orders.[35] Kabuto can regain control of Itachi by gaining access to the control talisman,[36] and in fact is still able to release him from the Impure World Reincarnation. Conversely, if the reincarnated soul knows the hand seals, they can sever the summoner's contract with them; in the anime, the seals are Snake → Ram → Boar → Dog → Tiger.[37] This grants them full control of their own actions, all the benefits of an immortal body, and prevents the summoner from releasing them from the Impure World Reincarnation. Madara Uchiha describes this as "the one risk of the technique".[21]

Known Reincarnated Edit

Orochimaru Edit

Name Village of origin
Hashirama Senju Konohagakure
Hiruzen Sarutobi Konohagakure
Minato Namikaze Konohagakure
Osoi (Anime only) Kumogakure
Tobirama Senju Konohagakure
Yota (Anime only) Unknown
Notes
  • During the Konoha Crush, Orochimaru attempted to reincarnate Minato Namikaze, unaware that his soul did not reside in the Pure Land. For that reason the summon failed.[2] The failed coffin is not seen in the manga, but in the anime it briefly appears with "four" (, Yon) written on it.[38] However, because of the mechanics of this technique, it's illogical that Orochimaru tried to summon the Fourth. He should've noticed that that's impossible when he had to do the first summoning (the one with the ritual).
  • In the anime, Orochimaru's reincarnation of Osoi was an accident, as he intended to reincarnate Toroi.

Kabuto YakushiEdit

Name Village of origin
A Kumogakure
Ameyuri Ringo Kirigakure
Asuma Sarutobi Konohagakure
Blue B (Anime only) Kumogakure
Chen (Anime only) Konohagakure
Chiyo Sunagakure
Chūkaku (Anime only) Fire Temple
Chūkichi Kirigakure
Dan Katō Konohagakure
Daimaru (Anime only) Sunagakure
Deidara Iwagakure
Takigakure
Fuguki Suikazan Kirigakure
Gari Iwagakure
Gengetsu Hōzuki Kirigakure
Ginkaku Kumogakure
Haku Kirigakure
Han Iwagakure
Hanzō Amegakure
Hayate Gekkō (Anime only) Konohagakure
Heiji (Anime only) Amegakure
Hizashi Hyūga Konohagakure
Inabi Uchiha (Anime only) Konohagakure
Itachi Uchiha Konohagakure
Jinin Akebino Kirigakure
Jinpachi Munashi Kirigakure
Jirōbō (Anime only) Otogakure
Kakuzu Takigakure
Kidōmaru (Anime only) Otogakure
Kimimaro Otogakure
Kinkaku Kumogakure
Kushimaru Kuriarare Kirigakure
Madara Uchiha Konohagakure
Mangetsu Hōzuki Kirigakure
Iwagakure
Nagato Amegakure
Osoi (Anime only) Kumogakure
Pakura Sunagakure
Rasa Sunagakure
Rōshi Iwagakure
Sakon and Ukon (Anime only) Otogakure
Sasori Sunagakure
Shin Konohagakure
Tatewaki (Anime only) Land of Iron
Tayuya (Anime only) Otogakure
Tonika Village Head (Anime only) Tonika Village
Toroi Kumogakure
Torune Aburame Konohagakure
Utakata Kirigakure
Yagura Kirigakure
Yota (Anime only) Unknown
Yugito Nii Kumogakure
Zabuza Momochi Kirigakure
Notes
  • Kabuto mentions his desire to reincarnate certain shinobi:[2]
    • Jiraiya, though his body lies at the bottom of the ocean where the water pressure is too great to reach. However, he claimed that the bloodstains on the Six Paths of Pain's weapons may provide enough DNA. Tobi denies him this request on the basis that doing so would be "pushing [his] luck".
    • Shisui Uchiha, but Kabuto could not find his body. He suggested that one of Shisui's eyes that was crushed by Danzō Shimura, whose corpse was in Tobi's possession, would be sufficient. As with Jiraiya's case, Tobi threatened him not to push his luck.
  • In the anime, Kabuto's reincarnation of Chūkaku and Heiji are accidents, as he intended to reincarnate Chiriku and Hanzō, respectively.
    • Kabuto deploys these and other mistaken reincarnations to try and release more important reincarnations from their bindings. As most are no stronger than genin, they all fail.[39]

Trivia Edit

Kabuto controlling the revived

The pebbles and grid Kabuto uses.

  • Kabuto is seen using a grid to keep track of all the reincarnated individuals he controls, with a pebble representing each shinobi.[4] It is not clear if there is some actual connection between the grid and those he reincarnates or if it's a mere convenience for him. In the anime, the pebbles crumble when the reincarnation is sealed. All of the pebbles are light-colored except for Madara Uchiha's, whose is black.[40] In the anime, the failed reincarnations are represented by piles of sand.[39]
  • "Edo" (穢土, Literally meaning: Dirty Soil) is what Japanese Buddhists call the normal world, unenlightened people live in. The current, living world. The world of the people who have not yet have escaped the polluting thoughts (greed, hatred, delusion, etc.) that result in suffering.
  • A possible translation of Tensei is "Resurrection". In terms of this technique, both "Reincarnation" and "Resurrection" can be found; the sacrificed body is reincarnated into the body of the summoned shinobi, while the reincarnated shinobi is resurrected from the dead.
  • In Naruto: Ultimate Ninja 2, Orochimaru reincarnates the Third Hokage despite his soul not being in the Pure Land.
  • During the original Naruto anime, a reincarnated target's eyes appear normal, albeit glazed over.[38] In Naruto: Shippūden, the eyes are corrected to match the manga.
  • In Ultimate Ninja Storm Generations, Kabuto Yakushi (Snake Cloak Form) uses the Impure World Reincarnation as his ultimate technique. He summons Kakuzu, Itachi, and Deidara, who attack the opponent using the Lightning Release: False Darkness, Fire Release: Great Fireball Technique, and C1, respectively.
  • In the anime, when eradicating the personality of Hanzō, Kabuto used several hand seals instead of just one.[41]

See Also Edit

References Edit

  1. First Databook, page 181
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Chapter 520
  3. Chapter 618, pages 13-17
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Chapter 521
  5. Naruto: Shippūden episode 318
  6. Chapter 620, page 11
  7. Chapter 513, pages 2 and 17
  8. Chapter 516, page 5
  9. Chapter 548, page 14
  10. Chapter 557
  11. Chapter 560, page 2
  12. 12.0 12.1 Chapter 522
  13. Chapter 620, pages 9-11
  14. Chapter 577, page 16
  15. Chapter 523, page 6
  16. Chapter 527, pages 1-3
  17. Chapter 656, page 17
  18. Chapter 614, page 5
  19. Chapter 561, page 2
  20. Chapter 548, page 17
  21. 21.0 21.1 Chapter 591, page 17
  22. Chapter 646, page 13
  23. Chapter 661, page 11
  24. Chapter 553, pages 4-5
  25. Chapter 637, pages 4-5
  26. Chapter 560, page 3
  27. Chapter 565, page 1
  28. Chapter 677
  29. Chapter 577, page 17
  30. Chapter 589, pages 8-12
  31. Chapter 691, page 13
  32. Chapter 518, page 17
  33. Chapter 589, pages 12-17
  34. Chapter 642, pages 4-5
  35. Chapter 550, page 8
  36. Chapter 582, page 3
  37. Naruto: Shippūden episode 340
  38. 38.0 38.1 Naruto episode 69
  39. 39.0 39.1 Naruto: Shippūden episode 316
  40. Chapter 575, page 14
  41. Naruto: Shippūden episode 272

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