|Please note that this is the Narutopedia's article on Shino Aburame from Konohagakure. If you are looking for the article on the similarly named Shinnō from Land of the Sky then you should head to Shinnō.|
|(油女シノ, Aburame Shino)|
|Anime||Naruto Episode #1|
|Novel||Kakashi Hiden: Lightning in the Icy Sky|
|Movie||Naruto Shippūden the Movie: Bonds|
|Game||Naruto: Ninja Council|
|OVA||Hidden Leaf Village Grand Sports Festival!|
|Appears in||Anime, Manga, Novel, Game, Movie|
|Academy Grad. Age||12|
|Chūnin Prom. Age||14|
During a training session at the Academy, he watched on alongside Kiba and Akamaru as Shikamaru and Chōji refused to fight each other even during training. When Kiba commented that Shikamaru, who had found the process to be too troublesome, would be a genin for the rest of his life, Shino noted that that may not be so as Shikamaru could go on to live a long life and many things could happen, but before he could finish his statement, he was cut off by Kiba who had become annoyed with the young Aburame's nitpicking.
Shino Aburame is a calm, collected, and solitary person, who is quite mysterious. He is portrayed as being somewhere between merely stoic and matter-of-fact, rarely ever smiling or showing emotion at all; rather than thank his team-mates for congratulating him on his victory in the preliminaries, he told them that he expected them to do the same. He also has a tendency of holding grudges and being rather intimidating, such as seen when Naruto failed to recognise him at the start of Part II (which is fair as the only visible part of his face was his sunglasses), but easily recognised Kiba and Hinata. He still holds that grudge to this day.
Shino seems to be aware of these odd personality traits; in the anime, when he ate food poisoned with a chemical that forced him to laugh, he menacingly told Naruto to forget it had ever happened. His interest in insects only helps him strengthen this viewpoint; by spending most of his spare time watching them, and often making analogies to insects when talking, people have come to identify Shino as "creepy", and tend to dislike being in his company for prolonged periods of time.
Despite occasionally arguing with Kiba, Shino has a very strong sense of connection with his team-mates and allies, first seen when he regretted being unavailable and therefore unable to help with retrieving Sasuke Uchiha. From that point onwards, he resolved to work on his teamwork skills with Kiba and Hinata. He even helped Hinata to improve her abilities, and is one of the few people, besides Naruto, who openly professes confidence in her. The fruits of his efforts are seen in the anime, where Shino was able to carry out a mission successfully while also keeping others safe. He also proves to be able to understand his team-mates' inner workings, sensing when the slightest of things is wrong with either of them.
Shino speaks in a curious fashion, as noted by both Naruto and Kiba. He speaks in a manner most simply described as "nitpicking" and uses the word 'because' (なぜなら, nazenara) a great deal. To others, his manner of speaking seems like over concern with the trivial points of a conversation which could be left unsaid, or, providing information that will leave questions that could possibly be asked — already answered. Examples of his syntax includes:
- (In his conversation with Kiba) "How was your mission…? I will be listening." (「お前達の任務がどんなものだったか…聞いておこう。」, "Omae-tachi no ninmu ga donna mono datta ka… Kiite okō.")
- (In his conversation with Kankurō) "You use puppets, so you're a mid- to long-range type. It looks like you're weak at close combat. Why you ask? Because you must concentrate on operating your puppet. So it seems that the Puppet Technique… can easily create a chink in the user's own defence…" (「お前は人形を使う中・遠距離タイプだ。接近戦は苦手と見た。 なぜなら 人形の操作に集中しなければならない。その傀儡の術とやらは…術者自体に隙が生じやすいからな…」, "Omae wa ningyō o tsukau chū-enkyori taipu da. Sekkinsen wa nigate to mita. Nazenara ningyō no sōsa ni shūchū shinakereba naranai. Sono Kugutsu no Jutsu to yara wa… jutsusha kitai ni suki ga shōji yasui kara na…")
- (During his confrontation with Tobi) "Naturally. Why you ask? Because I was left out of the previous mission." (「当たり前だ。 何故なら 前の任務は仲間外れだったからな。」, "Atarimae da. Nazenara mae no ninmu wa nakamahazure datta kara na.")
In the anime, it was shown that Shino will panic when confronted with insectivorous animals or plants. He will also fall into despair to the point where he almost cries and even refuses to continue his mission to avoid losing any more insects.
Shino is a fair-skinned ninja and the tallest member of his graduating class. He has dark bushy brown hair and dark, narrow eyes, the latter of which has only been shown in the anime. Shino is regularly seen sporting the same style as the rest of his clan, consisting of dark sunglasses and a sea-green jacket with a high, upturned collar.
During Part II, his appearance became even more mysterious, with his jacket hanging down to his knees and the addition of a hood that obstructs his face even more and a satchel on his back. This current appearance makes it harder for people like Naruto to recognise him right away. During the Fourth Shinobi World War, he wears a flak jacket under his jacket.
While Shino was in the Academy, he wore a similar outfit to the one he does now in Part II.
In battle, Shino is able to make great use of his intelligence, being able to use his analytical, and observational skills to make shrewd decisions with pinpoint reasoning. Like Shikamaru Nara, Shino prevails in battles by systematically staying several steps ahead of the enemy, as well as keeping a good distance away to avoid enemy attacks. Because of this, Shino is fairly confident in his abilities and that he will win a battle, and tends to try to communicate this to an opponent for their own well-being. Still, Shino enjoys fighting, and dislikes being denied a chance to battle a skilled opponent, as seen when he went out of his way during the invasion of Konoha to fight Kankurō, after the latter had forfeited to avoid revealing his puppets' secrets. Shino is also able to tell the number of people in an area by putting his ear to the ground. In the anime, Shino greatly improved his taijutsu skills during the time-skip to better handle close-combat situations, shown when he overwhelmed Suika, a proficient taijutsu user, during their second encounter. He has created the Iron Mountain Leaning technique, which he performs in collaboration with an insect clone to tackle the opponent from both sides.
Aburame Clan Techniques
As a member of the Aburame clan, Shino was infused at birth with a special breed of insects, called kikaichū, that use his body as a nest and feed on his chakra, living in a form of symbiosis. In return, they attack and do other tasks as he commands forming his main fighting style: in battle, he boxes in opponents with his bugs and then consumes their chakra once they cannot escape.
Shino also uses several of his clans' secret techniques while in battle. The first of these techniques that was seen is his Insect Clone Technique, which uses the bugs to create a copy of himself, that is able to reform once struck. Offensively, he's capable of encasing his enemies in a cage of insects with the Secret Technique: Insect Sphere, preventing them from moving and depriving them of their chakra. Shino can also use the bugs to spy and gather information. A female bug can be left on a target, which then can be tracked by its scent by the male bug, or scout bugs can be sent out and return to tell the host information about the area. Shino can communicate with the bugs, and the bugs specialise in stealth because they make no noise or motion during combat, making Shino highly adept in espionage.
The anime adds many techniques to Shino's repertory: he was seen creating a protective dome of insects to shield himself and his allies from incoming attacks, and was shown to be able to drastically increase the growth rate of his insects, as well as summoning others from the proximity in order to gain information. It was also demonstrated that his bugs are always undergoing evolutionary adaptation through mutation and natural selection. While the kikaichū only have a lifespan of a few hours, their life-cycle ensures that there will always be females with eggs. Any variations that prove useful to the individual bug (and consequently the bug-user) in combat will be passed on to the next generation, which can then be used cultivated for their success against dangerous opponents in combat.
Chūnin Exam Arc
In the first part of the Chūnin Exams, Shino used his insects to read the answers on other people's tests. During the second part, his knowledge of insects allowed his team to take another team's scroll with little effort; when leeches attacked another team (from the Amegakure in the anime, from the Konohagakure in the manga), they stumbled into a net trap.
During the preliminary matches of the Chūnin Exams, Shino was matched against Zaku Abumi. Because one of Zaku's arms was in a sling, Shino advised him to forfeit the match. Zaku refused, and instead attacked Shino with his one good arm. In attacking Shino, Shino was given an opportunity to box in Zaku with bugs, forcing Zaku to choose between attacking him or attacking the bugs, leaving the other to attack Zaku from behind. Zaku chose to attack both, and pulled his other arm out of its sling. As Zaku prepared to blast the two opposing forces, his arms detonated, making them unusable and putting him in immense pain (in the manga, his right arm was even blown off of his body). As Zaku writhed, Shino revealed that the tubes in Zaku's arms had been filled with his bugs, causing the pressure of Zaku's attack to go outward when it couldn't escape.
Shino was scheduled to fight against Kankurō in the final rounds, but Kankurō forfeited before their match began to avoid revealing the secrets of his puppet Crow. The invasion of Konoha started soon afterwards.
Invasion of Konoha Arc
When Kankurō fled the village, Shino followed him, wanting the fight he had been denied. Shino caught up with Kankurō about to fight with Sasuke, allowing Sasuke to continue on ahead while they had their match. Kankurō attacked Shino from a distance with his puppet, and Shino used his bugs to make otherwise impossible evasions. A poisonous gas attack, however, caught Shino by surprise. Although he was able to avoid the worst of it, Shino breathed in some of the gas. As the battle progressed, Shino used his bugs to eat away at the chakra strings that Kankurō used to control his puppet, forcing Kankurō to frequently relinquish and reacquire control of his only weapon. All the while, Shino directed his bugs to the scent of a female bug planted upon Kankurō's head, and upon reaching Kankurō, they consumed his chakra. As Kankurō collapsed due to the sapping of his strength, Shino collapsed too, the poisonous gas taking effect. After regaining consciousness, Shino found his father, Shibi Aburame, standing over him, using his own bugs to draw out the poison in Shino's body.
He is later seen at the Third Hokage's funeral alongside the other villagers, mourning his death.
Sasuke Retrieval Arc
Shino regretted being away with his father on a mission and therefore unable to help. Shino felt that, had he been able to help, the mission's outcome might have been different, and Sasuke might not have been able to abandon the village. Putting the past behind him, Shino resorted to working on his teamwork skills with Kiba and Hinata, helping the latter to improve her abilities.
Pre-Shippūden Filler Arcs
In episode 158, the Academy Students were divided into teams of three and were assigned to a genin who would lead them on a mission against the other teams. Shino was assigned to lead a team of three academy students; Kogane, Hotaru and Suzu. His time with them was not covered much except that he was doing better than Naruto.
In the Search for the Bikōchū Arc Shino led Team 8 along with Naruto to find the bikōchū beetle, a rare insect with legendary tracking abilities, in the hopes that it could be used to find Sasuke although this was in part due to Hinata, who before displayed very little confidence for any mission, strongly encouraging the idea. During this arc, he displayed his improved teamwork skills, recognising how much effort Hinata was putting into her training. Despite their best efforts, defeating the Kamizuru clan and even finding the bikōchū, Naruto passed wind on the bikōchū, causing it to follow his scent, and rendering it useless.
Shino was paired with Naruto and Ino under the command of Anko Mitarashi. They were ordered to find out what was terrorising the country, and defeat it if possible. Shino engaged Yoroi Akadō in battle during the group's raid on the laboratory, and fought him alone so that Naruto and Ino would be able to reach Amachi. His battle resumed outside, during the battle over the ship carrying the payment, and he defeated Yoroi with Ino's help.
In Kiba's Long Day, Shino's bugs suddenly begin attacking Akamaru who unbeknownst to the rest of the team had contracted a disease. As Shino tried to stop the insects, they refused to obey his commands forcing him to use a technique to forcefully stop them. After Kiba left, Shino bewilderedly wondered why his insects had attacked Akamaru like that.
Shino was sent on another mission with Naruto alone to Motoyoshi Village, where Shino was to be a stand-in for a man named Futa. The goal of the mission was to not laugh during a funeral. Futa would lose his inheritance otherwise, and the ever-serious Shino was sent as the perfect weapon for this task. However, due to sabotage (being drugged with a poison that causes one to faux-laugh), Shino had to sit out - leaving Naruto to attend the funeral in his place. Shino, unable to play his original role, learnt that the man the funeral was for wasn't actually dead, and conspired with him to get everyone at the funeral to laugh, posing as the old man and using bug clones to take the form of the man's children when they were young. The man had staged the funeral to get his family to laugh once again. At the end of the mission, Shino threatened Naruto to keep him quiet about his discovery of Shino's sense of humour, though he never actually mentioned what he would do if Naruto told anyone.
Shino had a supporting role in the Kurama Clan Arc, as while Kiba complained about Kurenai leaving the team, Shino suggested that it was her decision to do so. He also correctly guessed that Kurenai was lying when she said that she sealed Yakumo's abilities out of jealousy, noting that while her hands were trembling when talking about her past, they stopped when she gave her reason. His bugs proved useful against the genjutsu used by the Kurama clan members and Yakumo, as according to him, insects' simpler nervous systems are harder to manipulate. Shino sent his bugs into the room where Yakumo was holding Kurenai in order to save his sensei, only to see them come back. He reunited with Kurenai after the Ido's defeat.
In Ultimate Weapon Arc, Shino, Hinata, and Neji helped clear the areas for Shikamaru and the rest to continue. Shino was later seen with the rest of the team, as Naruto and Gaara fights with Seimei. He complimented about not going close to the enemy learning about the armour that absorbs chakra. The team watched Gaara continue to fight. After the mission, he, Kiba, and Chōji watched Tenten as she argues with Lee of she being the only one left out in the last mission. Shino somewhat tolerates Tenten, presumably because he was left out during the mission of retrieving Sasuke. He, Chōji, Kiba, Akamaru and Lee promised to get stronger in time of Naruto's return.
Sasuke and Sai Arc
Two and a half years later, Naruto went looking for help in another mission to find Sasuke. He ran into Shino, who he at first failed to recognise, only remembering him from his "annoying way of talking" as Shino does not seem to notice his outfit makes it hard for people who have not seen him in a while to recognise him. When Naruto immediately recognised Kiba and Hinata, however, Shino took to sulking with his back turned, apparently hurt that Naruto hadn't recognised him. Neither Shino nor his team-mates were able to help Naruto, as their team had already accepted a mission.
Hidan and Kakuzu Arc
In the anime, Shino is seen at Asuma's funeral mourning his loss along with the rest of the village.
In the anime, Team 8, under Kakashi's leadership, was sent to investigate one of Orochimaru's hideouts. It was destroyed upon their arrival, and they searched the surrounding area in search for clues. When they found a number of people encased in crystal, a fate shared by some of Shino's bugs, they sent a sample to Konoha for analysis. While waiting, Shino discovered that some of his bugs were resistant to the crystal, so he bred them to increase their numbers. Doing so required that he separated from the team.
Later, he reunited with his team in time to help them avoid a trap. Though the enemies retreated, Shino discovered that his bugs had yet to develop a complete immunity to the crystal. Soon afterwards, they were trapped by Guren, the source of the crystal, and Hinata was captured and encased in crystal. When back-up arrived and saved her, she revealed that she survived the crystallising process by encasing herself in chakra. Shino's bugs had done the same, which was why he had been unable to selectively breed an immunity. The team pursued Guren, but were distracted by the appearance of the Three-Tails.
Shino was assigned to help the members of the team that were trying to seal the beast. When Guren attacked in an effort to stop them, Shino, knowing his bugs were the best chance at defeating her, stayed back to prepare his insects. Once giving them enough chakra to coat themselves in, the bugs were able to completely overpower Guren's crystal techniques. Shino continued to protect the sealing team after defeating Nurari.
During this arc Shino is acquainted with Sai, the replacement on Team 7 for Sasuke. Naruto introduces them but doesn't have much to say about Shino, therefore hurting Shino's feelings. Because Sai knew more about him than did his friend of 3 years.
Itachi Pursuit Arc
When Kakashi needed to build a squad for the hunt for Itachi Uchiha, he added the members of Team 8 to his Eight Man Squad. When the squad encountered Tobi, Shino took charge of the fight to make up for not having been available to retrieve Sasuke the first time. Even though he was able to completely encase Tobi in his bugs, Tobi escaped, and was subsequently able to get to Sasuke before them.
Tsuchigumo Kinjutsu Arc
Main article: Tsuchigumo Kinjutsu Arc
Invasion of Pain Arc
During the initial assault, and the chaos created by Pain upon invading the village, Shino along with his team-mates watched in shock. Shino later left them to meet up with his father and other clan members.
He joins Muta, his father and another unnamed member of his clan in confronting Konan. They use their kikaichū to eat the paper that Konan had wrapped several shinobi in while Katsuyu healed them. Shino then tells his father that he would give his all to eradicate the enemy. The anime expands on this battle and the Aburame can be seen launching a surprise overhead assault on her, however this turns out to be just a clone.
As they look up they realise that they are surrounded by clones of Konan who descend on them. Shino and his clansmen send their bugs to destroy the clones who, to their surprise, detonate. They later realise that explosive tags had been placed in the clones. As they narrowly escape the explosion, Konan, who had drenched herself in water to counter the effects of fire and mixed herself in with the clones can be seen walking out of the flames. Later, in the anime, the four Aburame have been seen emerging from underneath rubble after Deva Path completely levels the village. Later, he went back to celebrate Naruto's victory over Pain with the other villagers.
Konoha History Arc
Main article: Konoha History Arc
Five Kage Summit Arc
After Sasuke has been branded an international criminal and is marked for death, Shino wonders if they should tell Naruto and Sakura about the situation between them and Sasuke if Ino is in a tough situation. Shikamaru then decides that he will tell them. As the other members of Konoha 11 are determined to kill Sasuke to prevent him from descending any lower, Shino is also prepared to do so. Shino was later seen with the rest of the Konoha 11, hearing Naruto's decision about Sasuke.
Main article: Chikara Arc
Adventures at Sea Arc
Main article: Adventures at Sea Arc
Shinobi World War Arc
Shino was placed in the Fifth Division. He stated that his team should avoid drawing attention to themselves, to which Ino assured him that it won't be difficult. After Kitsuchi blew the White Zetsu Army out of the ground, Shino used his Secret Technique: Insect Sphere to attack them. Shino states that not only are the White Zetsu Army strong, but they're "durable as well and says that if this keeps up, it'll end up being a war of attrition." After the first day of fighting, Shino is seen alive along with Kiba, Akamaru, Hinata, and Neji. Later, while Neji rests and Hinata takes on Neji's duties as a lookout, Shino tells her not to overexert herself as well as he had his bugs scattered all over the area.
In the anime, when the White Zetsu Army had infiltrated the Allied Shinobi Forces and began assassinating each member one by one, Team 8 were sent to a cave that was a hole to the allies' defences. Team 8 encountered the White Zetsu clones but an explosion occurred and everyone had scattered. Afterwards Shino found that one member of the accompanying Sealing Team was stabbed with a kunai after the explosion had occurred. Knowing that the White Zetsu could absorb the chakra of their enemies to impersonate them, Shino (who did not have any physical contact during the fight) was the only one who could not be impersonated. Team 8 distrusted each other as the imposter but Shino figured out a way to discern the imposter with a game of rock-paper-scissors. Shino and Kiba (who had figured out the signals during that game) rooted out the White Zetsu clone impersonating Hinata and defeat it. They later found Hinata lying unconscious. Once outside the cave, Shino discerned that the Zetsu clones had already collected personal data on each Allied Shinobi member courtesy of Yamato, meaning that the clones already knew of Hinata's love for Naruto.
After being informed by Inoichi from HQ that Naruto and B were fighting the "masked Madara", Shino and the rest of the Konoha 11 rush to his aid. As he runs, he states that he would flawlessly support Naruto with his power and that this time, there was no because. Upon arriving at the battlefield, Shino and a few other Aburame immediately use the Insect Jamming Technique in tandem with the Kiri-nins' Hiding in Mist Technique to obscure their position on the battlefield. He, and the other members of the Allied Shinobi Forces later stood to face their opposition. After the failed attempt to immobilise the Ten-Tails, Shino and the other braced themselves as the beast emerged from the hole it had been trapped in. He later listened on as Shikaku Nara imparted what would be his final battle strategy to the Alliance. Shino then learns of Neji's death.
Naruto Shippūden 2: Bonds
Shino played a brief role in the movie. He came to aid Kakashi, Sai, and Shikamaru by singlehandedly destroying the enemy base with his insects. At the end, they watched Naruto destroy the ruins with the Guts Rasengan.
Naruto Shippūden 3: Inheritors of the Will of Fire
Shino was first seen when they celebrated for Naruto and Sai's recovery and ate barbecue.
At the Hokage's office, Tsunade orders the Konoha 11 to stay away from Kakashi, labelling him as a missing-nin for the sake of the secret mission. Meanwhile, Sakura comes to rescue Naruto from the cell that Shikamaru put him in, then they leave the village to rescue Kakashi. Shino was sent with the rest of Konoha 11 to retrieve them back.
Shino's team caught up with Naruto and Sakura, with the rest of Konoha 11. Shino and the others was caught by one of Hiruko's henchmen Ichi, and was freed by Tenten. Team Guy was left behind to take down the first of Hiruko's henchmen. Shino's team fought the second of Hiruko's henchmen, Ni and her chimera nin-dogs, Shino took down Ni's chimera nin-dogs, Ni became angry and used a Chimera Technique fusing herself with a large beast, while Kiba, Hinata, and Akamaru delayed her before Shino built a large pit trap. After being teased by Kiba, Ni fell into Shino's trap and was destroyed by Shino's Secret Technique: Insect Sphere.
After Team 10 failed to defeat the last of Hiruko's henchmen, San then summoned his two team-mates, Ichi and Ni, and used Chimera Technique, which made them turn into a massive flying beast. Shino and the rest of Konoha 11 then arrives to back up Team 10, Shikamaru told Tenten to chain the beast wings to restrict its flight, while Shino and the rest of Konoha 11, except Shikamaru constricted the beast by holding the chains, Hinata and Neji then channelled their chakra through the chains destroying the beast, before it was re-summoned by Hiruko.
Shino later arrives at Hiruko's temple and engages the chimera that was summoned by Hiruko earlier.
Naruto 6: Road to Ninja
The alternate world's Shino, unlike the Shino that Naruto and Sakura know, is a huge plant lover and hates bugs and tries to kill as many as possible. However, his personality and creepy nature still remains.
Shino Aburame is a playable character in the following video games:
- "Shino" is the given name of the samurai Inuzuka of Nansō Satomi Hakkenden, a novel about a dog samurai. His teammate, Kiba Inuzuka is also based off Inuzuka from the novel.
- "Shino" is Japanese for "Of Faith", and Aburame means "Oil Woman".
- In Naruto character popularity polls, Shino was ranked 12th in the third, 25th in the fourth, 21st in the fifth. He finished 26th in the sixth and most recent.
- In the anime, Shino has been shown to name his insects.
- During Naruto episode 149, Shino's eyes are momentarily seen.
- Shino is the only one of the Rookie Nine not to be on a manga cover before the time-skip.
- According to the databook(s):
- Shino's hobbies are Entomology, and collecting new specimens for his insect collection.
- Shino wishes to fight someone strong.
- Shino's favourite foods are wild grass salad and winter melon, whilst his least favourite foods are Tofu balls and any foods that are strong-smelling.
- Shino has completed 44 official missions in total: 17 D-rank, 17 C-rank, 9 B-rank, 1 A-rank, 0 S-rank.
- Shino's favourite phrase is "trump card" (切り札, kirifuda).
- (To Zaku) "Fight me, and you shall never recover. Forfeit and withdraw."
- (To Zaku) "This is what a real trump card is."
- "Never underestimate your opponent, no matter how small they may seem."
- (To Kankurō) "I hate explaining the same thing twice."
- (To Naruto) "Even if it's been a while, you should remember your comrades' faces. Why? Because otherwise you will hurt their feelings when they call out to you."
- (To himself) "I will flawlessly support Naruto with my ninjutsu… Why you ask? Because… there's no need for a reason!" (「オレの忍術でナルトを完璧にサポートする…なぜなら……は必要ない!」, "Ore no ninjutsu de Naruto o kanpeki ni sapōto suru… Nazenara… wa hitsuyō nai!")
- ↑ First Databook, pages 18-19
- ↑ Second Databook, pages 19-21
- ↑ Third Databook, pages 18-19
- ↑ Fourth Databook, page 21
- ↑ Retsu no Sho, page 28
- ↑ Naruto chapter 538, page 7
- ↑ Naruto chapter 238, page 6
- ↑ Naruto chapter 126, page 5
- ↑ Naruto chapter 394, page 17
- ↑ Naruto chapter 58, page 9
- ↑ Naruto: Shippūden episode 236
- ↑ Naruto chapter 611, page 12
- ↑ Naruto chapter 427, page 14
- ↑ Naruto: Shippūden episode 279
- ↑ Naruto: Shippūden episode 185
- ↑ Naruto chapter 69, page 6
- ↑ Naruto chapter 69, page 21
- ↑ Naruto chapter 125, page 9
- ↑ Naruto chapter 126, page 18
- ↑ Naruto chapter 282, page 13
- ↑ Naruto chapter 573, page 10