The Human Path (人間道, Ningendō) grants a Rinnegan user the ability to read the mind of any target by placing his hand on the target's head or chest and yanking the soul out of the body. Though it provides intel by getting well guarded secrets, the technique inevitably kills the target. In life, Nagato channelled the powers of the Human Path through the corpse of a Takigakureshinobi.
In battle, the Human Path is relatively worthless compared to the other Paths as Nagato was quick to sacrifice it to protect the Animal Path against his final battle in life against Naruto.
In Buddhism, the Human realm (also known as the "Manuṣya realm") is based on passion, desire, doubt, and pride. It is widely believed that the Human realm is the form of rebirth most likely to attain enlightenment, due to both the availability of information and teachers, and the ability to reason without falling victim to the obsessive aggression or carnal delights inherited by the higher planes.